INDUSTRIAL LOCOMOTIVES
FOR MINING, FACTORY AND ALLIED USES
PART I. - STEAM LOCOMOTIVES
By J. F. Gairns
pp 291-309

Generally the original text followed the illustrations in numerical order, however some illustrations are referred to out of sequence, some in conjunction with others (in sequence or not), and others are not elaborated upon at all. I have attempted to maintain the illustrations in the order they appear in the articles (not always numerical order as some appear to have been switched around in the typesetting) with the text in order but arranged to follow the illustration.


THE design and use of locomotives for mining, factory and analogous work is not a novel subject for treatment in technical magazines and journals. Much valuable information has been published concerning locomotives built specially for such "industrial" use as distinct from work on standard railways for conveying booked passengers and paid-for goods on a more or less large scale and under circumstances where speed and economical working are important considerations. But the subject is a very wide one, and the descriptions of these specially designed locomotives are scattered, and are mostly dealt with in sections only, so that, in view of the already extensive, and rapidly expending, adoption of the locomotive in place of animal and manual power in and about works, factories, mines, quarries, etc., and generally an "industrial" agent, it is thought that a review of what has been and is being done by locomotive-building firms, prepared in a comparatively thorough, though by no means exhaustive, manner, will be appreciated by the readers of this magazine, and may be useful to prospective users of such specially designed locomotives.

It is difficult to decide where ordinary locomotive design leaves off and special design to meet special circumstances commences; but while a few locomotives, such as are best described as contractor's locomotives, will be included, this article will deal only with mining (for use both in and about mines) and factory locomotives for use under conditions which call for radical departures from orthodox or ordinary designs, other than mere dimensional differences. On standard railways steam is almost universal as a motive power, electricity being its only rival worth mentioning, though compressed air and internal-combustion engines have had limited trial; but for such work as this article is concerned with, the three principal sources of motive power, steam, compressed air and electricity, are more equally matched, and while each is particularly suitable for certain uses, the rivalry, in a general way, is keen. The explosion motor, too, is now entering the arena as a contestant.

Speaking broadly, it may be said that the considerations which govern the choice of motive power, other than such matters as the availability of electric generating and air compressing stations, or the possibility of using natural forces, waterfalls, etc., for central station purposes, are substantially as follows:-

1.- Dimensional limitations.
2.- Objections to the use of motors in which a furnace is comprised.
3.- Whether locomotive power is to be employed in single units or in a more or less extensive and systematic scale.
4.- The loads to be hauled, the distance to be covered, curves, the gradients to be surmounted, and the character of the permanent way.
5.- Whether the locomotives can be manipulated by experienced men or by ordinary and comparatively unskilled labour.
6.- Possibility or probability of a particular motive power when used under certain conditions, though not of itself dangerous, being a source of danger to men employed near, or in connection with, the locomotive.

All or most of these considerations may be important in some cases; in others, factories such as have been above excepted act to influence matters, while in some instances the choice of a particular motive power results from selection by engineers on the score of convenience or economy. The firms who make a specialty of these "industrial" locomotives are well aware of the often-times exacting conditions which have to be taken into account; and, as will be seen hereafter, much ingenuity has been displayed in the design of locomotives to meet greatly varying circumstances, while it is rare that, however complicated and difficult the position may be, they cannot design a locomotive that will be applicable and suitable, and so some other motive system has to be employed.

Considering now the governing considerations set forth above, the first, that of "dimensional limitation," calls for the design of locomotives of restricted width and height, and sometimes length and weight as well, though the latter operate more in connection with locla conditions, such as curves ans the character of the permanent way. As the diminutiion in power allowable is rarely proportionate to the required lessening of dimensions, it follws that the design of these "restricted" locomotives calls for much skill on the part of the designers, and great interest attaches to their work. In some cases, the boiler and other parts have to be pitched very low and to be specially constructed, while the driver often travels in a sitting position, and even in a lying-down position. In other instances, the projecting parts, chimney, cab, etc., are arranged so as to be collapsible when required. Indeed, it is hard to express briefly the many ingenious and interesting devices which have to be employed to comply with conditions, so that the examples to be described must speak for themselves.

Owing to the nature and circumstances of the work to be done it is imperative that no locomotive in which a furnace is comprised shall be employed, as for instance, in "fiery" and mand "non-fiery" mines, and in connection with factories concerned with explosive and inflammable materials. Sometimes electricity is not admissable as a motive power because of the posibility of sparking or fusing of safety devices under dangerous conditions.

If only a single locomotive is to be used, an independent typemust be employed, such as a steam or "petrol" engine, unless there is already electric or pneumatic power available from a plant provided for other purposes. If locomotive power is used on a larger scale, a central electric generating or air compressing plant can be advantageously installed, and, therefore, non-independent locomotives can be used.

Conditions 4 and 5 are self-explanatory, and , therefore, require no special mention here. Condition 6 covers such considerations as the emission of smoke and fumes in confined spaces, liability to breakdowns, danger from exposed electrical conductors, etc.

The subject being thus generally introduce, representative examples of the locomotive designer's art will be described and illustrated with photographic reproductions and drawings kindly supplied for  this article by the various firms concerned. In the first section are included steam locomotives working according to ordinary methods and also designed on special systems; in the second section to appear in the July number of this magazine, compressed air and internal-combustion locomotives will be dealt with; and in the third section, to appear in the August number, electric locomotives will receive attention.
I.- STEAM LOCOMOTIVES

As an introduction to the study of steam locomotives for industrial use it will be fitting, for sake of completeness, to briefly describe a few specimen engines as provided for contractors' use, which do not, however, possess any very noteworthy features as regards special design. For this [purpose several photographs are reproduced, selected from a considerable number in the writer's possession. It will, of course, be understood that most builders of contrators' locomotives have a complete series of designs suited for varying requirements, of wgich the locomotives selected for illustration indicate the general characteristics, apart from the differences in practice of each firm.

Original illustrations

Original text

Notes


FIG. 1.- FOUR-WHEELED SADDLE TANK LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BY MESSRS. PECKETT & SONS, BRISTOL, ENGLAND
Fig. 1 illustrates a fairly powerful and handy four-wheeled locomotive built by Messrs. Peckett & Sons, of Bristol, Englans, and of which large numbers have been built and supplied to gas workd and ironworks, to collieries fir surface work, and for ordinary contractors' use. The cylinders are 10 inches in diameter, with a stroke of 15 inches, the wheels 2 feet 6½ inches in diameter, wheel base 5 feet, and weight in working order 16½ tons. This engine is for use on standard gauge lines; but smaller locomotives, some with outside cylinders, are built for use on narrow gauge lines.

FIG. 2.- A SIX WHEELED SADDLE TANK LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BY MESSRS. HUDSWELL, CLARKE & CO., LTD., LEEDS, ENGLAND
Fig. 2 shows a comparatively small type of six-wheeled coupled locomotive built by Messrs. Hudswell, Clarke & Co., Ltd., of Leeds, England. Large numbers of these engines have been built and supplied to contractors, clooieries, etc. This particular locomotive as cylinders 13 x 20 inches, wheels 3 feet 3½ inches in diameter, and weighs in working order 24 tons.
"Countess of Warwick"

FIG. 3.- A SIX-WHELLED SADLE TANK LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BY MESSRS. HAWTHORN, LESLIE & CO., LTD., NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE, ENGLAND
Fig. 3 shows a larger type of six-coupled, saddle-tank engine, with outside cylinders, built by Messrs. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., Ltd., of Newcastle-on-Tyne.

These may be taken as samples of stock designs of British locomotive-building firms for factories, quarries and for surface use at mines of various kinds. Such locomotives are used very extensively in Great Britain and the Colonies.

"Edward VII"


FIG. 4.- A CONTRACTOR'S LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BY A. BORSIG, TEGEL, NEAR BERLIN, GERMANY
Two German designs of four-wheeled locomotives for similar general work are illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5, the one as built by the firm of A. Borsig. of Tegel, near Berlin, and the other as built by the Hohenzellern Locomotive Works, of the Düsseldorf-Grafenberg.





FIG. 5.- A CONTRACTOR'S LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BY THE HOHENZOLLERN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, OF DÜSSELDORF-GRAFENBERG
Hohenzollern works number 875
"Gutehoffnungshütte 2."

FIG. 6.- LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BY MESSRS. ANDREW BARCLAY, SONS & CO., LTD., OF KILMARNOCK
When it is required that the locomotive shall go through passeges of limited dimesnions, but not such as will require special design of the locomotive as a whole, it may not be neccessary to alter ordinary designs further than to use a low steam dome, or none at all, to arrange the boiler as low as possible on the frames, and to appropriately shape the cab. Fig. 8 shows such a design, as supplied by the firm of A. Borsig for work about a Spanish copper mine. This engine in required to work into the mine when needed, and so the cab is shaped to approximately fit the passages.

The writer has in his possession illustrations of a small four-wheeled locomotive, built by the Hunslett Engine Company, of Leeds, in which the cab is shaped as in the Germsn engine shown in Fig.8, but has no side opening, the driver having to enter from behind the engine. This ensures  that the engine-men shall not, by any chance, come into contact with the sides of the narrow passages run through, or with objects which project dangerously close to the locomotive.

The steam locomotives built by the same firm for the Central London Railway, London's "twopenny tube," have also curved cabs, and the chimneys, domes, etc., are also limited to fit te tunnels. These engines were used in the construction of te railway, and are occasionally sent into the tunnels even now in case of breakdown of the electric tarins or for special purposes.

Fig. 7 illustrates a four-wheeled, coupled, saddle tank engine having a short chimney, a depressed driver's platform, and a cab roof on a level with the top of thetank, so as to be applicable for tunnelling work, and where height is restricted. The engine has been built by Messrs. Hudswell, Clarke & Co., Ltd. It works on a metre gauge road.

Fig. 6 shows an intersting swarf locomotive as built by Messrs. Andrew Barclay, Sons & Co., Ltd., of Kilmarnock. For its size it is a very powerful machine and has been doing good work for several years now. Quite recently a repeat order was given for a dupliate engine. On account of the lowness of the roof the driver is provided with a seat. The cylinders are 7x14 inches, wheals 1 foot 10 inches in diameter, boiler pressure 140 lbs. per square inch.

Another locomotive, by the same builders, is adapted for working on either a narrow gauge or on the standard of 4 feet 8½ inches, the change being effected with comparitively little trouble. The problem of allowing for change of gauge is solved by designing the frames, axle boxes, etc., so that the wheels can be placed either inside or outside the frame, the one position being used when the narrow gauge is to be worked over, and the other position for standard-gauge work. With the wheels outside the frames, the connecting and coupling rods work on crankpins attached to the wheels, as in an ordinary outside cylinder locomotive. When the wheels are within the frames, the axles have outside cranks for the connecting and coupling rods.
A set of wheels and axles adapted for the two uses is provided with the engine, and to effect the change it is only necessary to disconnect the rods, remove ones set of wheels and fit the other set, couple up the rods again, and the engine is again ready for use, but on the other gauge. Such an arrangement saves the expense of a second engine, especially for railway contractors and others, who can use the engine on narrow-gauge construction tracks and then convert it to standard gauge during the later stages of work.
Works number 815 of 1898
"Brooketon"

Built to a gauge of 2'4" for Sir Charles Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak, Labuan [ILS]


FIG. 7.- LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BY MESSRS. HUDSWELL, CLARKE & CO., LTD., LEEDS


FIG. 8.- A MINE LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BY A. BORSIG, OF BERLIN, FOR A SPANISH COPPER MINE


FIG. 9.- A MINE LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BY MESSRS. KERR, STUART & CO., LTD., LONDON

"Colquechaca"

FIG. 10.- A COLLAPSIBLE LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BY THE HUNSLETT ENGINE CO., LEEDS, AS USED IN THE OPEN

Works number 587 of 1893?
"Bernard"

FIG. 11.- THE LOCOMOTIVE SHOWN IN FIG. 10, AS USED IN RESTRICTED PASSAGES AND TUNNELS



FIG.12.- A HEAD-ON VIEW OF THE LOCOMOTIVE SHOWN IN FIGS. 10 AND 11, WITH CHIMNEY REMOVED AND LOWERED



FIG. 13 - A COLLAPSIBLE LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BY MESSRS. HUDSWELL, CLARKE & CO., LTD. USUAL WORKING POSITION

Works number 283 of 1885?
"Minero"

FIG. 14.- THE SAME LOCOMOTIVE WITH THE CAB REMOVED AND CHIMNEY TURNED DOWN



FIG. 15.- A LOCOMOTIVE RECENTLY SUPPLIED TO THE COMMERCIAL GAS COMPANY OF LONDON BY MESSRS. PECKETT & SONS, OF BRISTOL



FIG. 16.- A MINE LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE LEHIGH COAL & NAVIGATION CO., BUILT BY THE BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, PHILADELPHIA









FIGS. 17, 18 AND 19.- OTHER FORMS OF MINE LOCOMOTIVES BUILT BY THE BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS



FIG.20.- A FIRELESS LOCOMOTIVE (FRANCQ SYSTEM) BUILT BY THE HOHENZOLLERN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, OF
DÜSSELDORF-GRAFENBERG

"Stadt Essen"

FIG.21.- SECTIONAL VIEW OF A FRANCQ FIRELESS LOCOMOTIVE AS BUILT BY THE COMPAGNE CONTINENTALE D'EXPLOITATION DES LOCOMOTIVES SANS FOYER, PARIS



FIG. 22.- A CRANE LOCOMOTIVE AS BUILT BY MESSRS. HAWTHORN, LESLIE & CO., LTD., NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE



FIG. 23.- A CRANE LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BU A. BORSIG, BERLIN, GERMANY



FIG. 24.- A CRANE LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BY MESSRS. ANDREW BARCLAY, SONS & CO, LTD.

[ILS] identifies a number of candidates for these locomotives:

804 of 1897, "Hallside No. 7", Steel Co of Scotland Ltd, Hallside Works, Newton. [fitted with 5ton crane at 16ft radius]

838 of 1899, "No. 14",      D Colville & Sons Ltd, Motherwell [5ton crane at 16ft radius]

855 of 1899, "No. 10", Stanton Ironworks Co Ltd, Stanton [fitted with 3ton crane at 20ft radius]

878 of 1900, "Fram", Muir & Finlay for Vaga-Och Maskinfabricks Aktiebolaget, Falun, Sweden [fitted with 2 ton crane at 25ft 3" radius]

880 of 1902, Glenfield & Kennedy Ltd, Kilmarnock [fitted with 5ton crane at 16ft radius]

922 of 1901, "Gwladys No. 1",      Port Talbot Iron & Steel Co Ltd, Port Talbot [5ton crane at 16ft radius]

955 of 1903, "No. 2" , Sharp, Stewart & Co Ltd, Atlas Works, Glasgow [4ton crane at 14ft radius]

FIG. 25.- A LONG-RAKE CRANE LOCOMOTIVE BY THE SAME BUILDERS


FIG. 26.- PLAN OF A RAILWAY GOODS YARD, SHOWING SCOPE OF WORK OF A BARCLAY LONG-RAKE CRANE LOCOMOTIVE


Part. I. - Steam Locomotives
Part. II. - Compressed Air and Internal Combustion Locomotives
Part. III. - Electric Locomotives

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